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The IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) is an alphabet designed to represent the sounds of speech. It has symbols for all the common sounds found across different languages, and nearly all the other sounds of language can be formed by adding diacritics to the basic symbols.

The IPA is widely used as a standard for comparing different languages, including conlangs; this is better than stating equivalents such as "like the vowel in English 'bed' ", because such equivalents may be different for different speakers, whereas the IPA values are fixed.

The following chart lists all the symbols of the IPA:

IPA Viewing this page requires Unicode fonts and an up-to-date browser.

Pulmonic Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʔ
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Trill ʙ r ʀ
Tap or flap ɾ ɽ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ

Non-pulmonic consonants

Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives
ʘ Bilabial ɓ Bilabial ʼ as in:
ǀ Dental ɗ Dental/alveolar Bilabial
ǃ (Post)alveolar ʄ Palatal Dental/alveolar
ǂ Palatoalveolar ɠ Velar Velar
ǁ Alveolar lateral ʛ Uvular Alveolar fricative


Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. Those in (parentheses) are unofficial.

Front Central Back
Close i·y ɨ·ʉ ɯ·u
ɪ·ʏ ʊ
Close-mid e·ø ɘ·ɵ ɤ·o
Open-mid ɛ·œ ɜ·ɞ ʌ·ɔ
æ ɐ
Open a·ɶ ɑ·ɒ

Other symbols

ʍ Voiceless labial-velar fricative ɕ ʑ Alveolo-palatal fricatives
w Voiced labial-velar approximant ɺ Alveolar lateral flap
ɥ Voiced labial-palatal approximant ɧ Simultaneous ʃ and x
ʜ Voiceless epiglottal fricative Affricates and coarticulations can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary.
k͡p t͡s
The Windows fonts Arial Unicode MS, Microsoft Sans Serif and Tahoma display tie bars incorrectly.
ʢ Voiced epiglottal fricative
ʡ Epiglottal plosive


ˈ Primary stress ˌfoʊnəˈtɪʃən
ˌ Secondary stress
ː Long
ˑ Half-long
˘ Extra short ĕ
. Syllable break ɹi.ækt
| Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
Linking (absence of a break)

Tones and word accents

Due to the limitations of current technology, it is unlikely that the contour tone symbols will display correctly.

Level Contour
e̋ or ˥ Extra high ě or ˩˥ Rising
é ˦ High ê ˥˩ Falling
ē ˧ Mid e ˦˥ High rising
è ˨ Low e ˩˨ Low rising
ȅ ˩ Extra low e ˦˥˦ Rising-falling, etc.
Downstep Global rise
Upstep Global fall


Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. ŋ̊

 ̥ Voiceless  ̤ Breathy voiced  ̪ Dental
 ̬ Voiced  ̰ Creaky voiced  ̺ Apical
ʰ Aspirated  ̼ Linguolabial  ̻ Laminal
 ̹ More rounded ɔ̹ ʷ Labialized ˜ Nasalized
 ̜ Less rounded ɔ̜ ʲ Palatalized Nasal release dⁿ
 ̟ Advanced ˠ Velarized ˡ Lateral release
 ̠ Retracted ˤ Pharyngealized  ̚ No audible release
¨ Centralized ë ~ Velarized or pharyngealized ɫ
 ̽ Mid-centralized  ̝ Raised (ɹ̝ = voiced alveolar fricative)
 ̩ Syllabic ɹ̩  ̞ Lowered (β̞ = voiced bilabial approximant)
 ̯ Non-syllabic  ̘ Advanced tongue root
˞ Rhoticity ɚ  ̙ Retracted tongue root


ExtIPA is an extension of the basic IPA chart. The ExtIPA chart can be viewed here. Z-Sampa contains equivalents for all the symbols in the ExtIPA chart.


(other than those on the chart above)

Bilabial Labiodental Dentolabial Labioalveolar Linguolabial Interdental Bidental Alveolar Velar Velopharyngeal
Plosive t̪͆ d̪͆
Nasal n̪͆
Trill r̪͆
θ̼ ð̼ θ̪͆ ð̪͆ h̪͆ ɦ̪͆ ʩ
ʪ ʫ
Percussive: ʬ ʭ


 ͍ Labial spreading  ͈ Strong articulation  ͊ Denasal
 ͆ Dentolabial  ͉ Weak articulation  ͋ Nasal escape
 ̪͆ Interdental/bidental n̪͆ \ Reiterated articulation p\p\p  ͌ Velopharyngeal friction
 ͇ Alveolar  ͎ Whistled articulation Ingressive airflow p↓
 ̼ Linguolabial  ͢  Sliding articulation θ͢s Egressive airflow ǃ↑

Connected Speech

(.) Short pause
(..) Medium pause
(...) Long pause
f Loud speech [{f lɑʊd f}]
ff Louder speech [{ff lɑʊdɚ ff}]
p Quiet speech [{p kwaɪət p}]
pp Quieter speech [{pp kwaɪətɚ pp}]
allegro Fast speech [{allegro fɑːst allegro}]
lento Slow speech [{lento sloʊ lento}]
crescendo, rallentando, etc. may also be used


ˬ  Pre-voicing ˬz
 ˬ Post-voicing
( ̥) Partial devoicing ()
( ̥ Initial partial devoicing (
 ̥) Final partial devoicing )
( ̬) Partial voicing ()
( ̬ Initial partial voicing (
 ̬) Final partial voicing )
˭ Unaspirated
h  Preaspriation hp


Kirshenbaum is a scheme of representing IPA symbols in the ASCII character set, developed by Usenet users. The majority of ZBBers, however, choose to use X-SAMPA or Z-SAMPA, itself and extension of X-SAMPA.